NMAAHC shares primer for Black Music Month
Written by Lesleigh Mausi on June 24, 2020
June is Black Music Appreciation Month, and Art of Cool Radio has enjoyed featuring amazing artists across multiple genres to commemorate the season. It is assuring that the timing of Black Music Month 2020 falls within a global pandemic and global racial protests for justice, because music has proven to be healing and restorative in the lives and history of African Americans for centuries.
Created by President Jimmy Carter in 1979, this month celebrates the African American musical influences that comprise an essential part of our nation’s treasured cultural heritage. Formerly called National Black Music Month, this celebration of African American musical contributions is re-established annually by presidential proclamation.
For music lovers and families wishing to learn more about the genres that African Americans have created, inspired and fostered, The National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington D.C. (NMAAHC) has prepared a primer that shares history and context to guide further research and discussion in your homes and communities. Though by no means exhaustive, the following primer is a welcome resource that can be shared and enjoyed by all cultures looking to learn and embrace the impact of African American music on our world.
Sacred music, which includes spirituals and gospel music, illustrates the central role that music plays in African American spiritual and religious life. The earliest form of black musical expression in America, spirituals were based on Christian psalms and hymns and merged with African music styles and secular American music forms. Spirituals were originally an oral tradition and imparted Christian values while also defining the hardships of slavery. Gospel music originated in the black church and has become a globally recognized genre of popular music. In its earliest manifestations, gospel music functioned as an integral religious and ceremonial practice during worship services. Now, gospel music is also marketed commercially and draws on contemporary, secular sounds while still conveying spiritual and religious ideas.
(L-R, top row) James Herndon, Albertina Walker Inez Andrews, Johnnie Erin “Johneron” Davis and (L-R, bottom row) Cassietta George and Shirley Caesar of the gospel group “The Caravans” pose for a portrait in New York, 1960.Michael Ochs Archives via Getty Images
African American folk music links back to African cultural traditions. Stemming from field hollers, work chants and game songs, folk music bursts with social commentary. Popular folk protest music spread in the 1960s, and its influence is still found within hip-hop today.
Ritchie Havens, circa 1970Michael Ochs Archives via Getty Images
The blues form the foundation of contemporary American music. As did sacred and folk music, the blues also greatly influenced the cultural and social lives of African Americans. Geographically diverse incarnations of the blues arose in various regions, including the Mississippi Delta, Memphis, Chicago, Southern Texas. Each regional manifestation of the blues features a uniquely identifiable sound and message. For example, Mississippi Delta blues illustrated the poverty of the region while celebrating its natural and cultural richness.
Etta James, circa 1962Michael Ochs Archives via Getty Images
Beginning with the Revolutionary War, African Americans have always held a significant role in the armed services’ military band tradition. In the Revolutionary War and Civil War, African Americans served in fife and drum corps. Musicians that played in military bands during World War I and World War II often incorporated modern musical styles, such as jazz, into their song selections. They also toured the United States and Europe, entertaining civilian and military audiences alike.
Jazz evolved from ragtime, an American style of syncopated instrumental music. Jazz first materialized in New Orleans and is often distinguished by African American musical innovation. Multiple forms of the genre exist today, from the dance-oriented music of the 1920s big-band era to the experimental flair of modern avant-garde jazz.
American jazz pianist and bandleader Count Basie (William Basie, 1904 – 1984) rehearsing at the Cafe Anglais, Leicester Square, London.Reg Birkett via Getty Images
Rhythm and Blues
The predecessor to soul music, R&B is another stylistically-diverse genre with roots in jazz, the blues and gospel music. R&B helped spread African American culture and popularized the idea of racial integration on the airwaves and in white society. Today’s iteration of the genre has assimilated soul and funk characteristics.
Portrait of American pop and R&B singer Mary J. Blige, 1990s. Anthony Barboza via Getty Images
Rock and Roll
Rock ‘n’ roll music incorporates elements from all African American music genres and combines them with American pop and country music components. The genre was born in the 1950s and appealed to the rebellious yearnings of American youth culture.
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inductee Little Richard, circa 1956.Michael Ochs Archives via Getty Images
Hip-Hop and Rap
Hip-Hop and rap are musical traditions firmly embedded in African American culture. Like jazz, hip-hop has become a global phenomenon and has exerted a driving force on the development of mass media. Hip-hop music spawned an entire cultural form, while rap remains a means for artists to voice opinions and share experiences regarding social and political issues.
MC Lyte on the set of a music video shoot in New York, circa the 1990s.Tomas/IMAGES via Getty Images
This list of musical styles merely scratches the surface. In addition to the genres previously detailed, African American musicians and artists have also developed and influenced classical music traditions, country and western music, pop music, and dance music such as disco, techno and house, among other genres and styles. Millions of people around the globe listen to and are touched by music that carries elements of African American musical traditions.
Source: National Museum of African American History and Culture